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In order to buy a Stock, you must place a buy order, in which you define the price at which you want to buy the Stock, and the amount of Stocks that you wish to purchase. As soon as there is someone selling at the same price on the market, the order is executed. The same applies to a sell order.
Bonds are debt instruments, which can be issued by companies or governments. When an entity issues a Bond, it's stipulated to pay a certain amount, on a certain date to the holder of the Bond, and may also pay periodic amounts until that date.
As a moderate risk product, it is advisable to consider a medium/long term investment for Bonds, and in the event of a fall in value, the longer the investment term, the more time is left to recover the value lost.
A Bond varies in price depending on the existing demand, which is calculated based on the yield (expected return of the Bond), the risk of payment failure by the issuer, the Bond's maturity and the prevailing interest rate environment.